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  1. Commission staff working document on Online Platforms - https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/commission-staff-working-document-online-platforms
  2. An Economic Policy Perspective on Online Platforms-https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/sites/jrcsh/files/JRC101501.pdf
  3. Remedies for breaches of EU antitrust law by Cyril Ritter- Available in: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2781441
  4. The Commission has proposed a Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications to update current rules to technical developments and to adapt them to the General Data Protection Regulation that will enter into application in May 2018. The objective is to reinforce trust and security in the Digital Single Market. January ,2017.
  5. Proposal for an ePrivacy Regulation. The European Commission's proposal for a Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications aims at reinforcing trust and security in the Digital Single Market by updating the legal framework on ePrivacy. January, 2017
  6. European Commission - Press release The Commission has sent two Statements of Objections to Google. The Commission has reinforced, in a supplementary Statement of Objections, its preliminary conclusion that Google has abused its dominant position by systematically favoring its comparison shopping service in its search result pages. July 14th, 2016.
  7. Online platforms have dramatically changed the digital economy over the last two decades and bring many benefits in today's digital society. They play a prominent role in the creation of 'digital value' that underpins future economic growth in the EU and consequently are of major importance to the effective functioning of the digital single market. May 25th, 2016.
  8. The economics of platforms. In economics, platforms are known as "two-sided" or "multi-sided" markets where two or more types of users are brought together by a platform to facilitate an exchange or a transaction. Users can be buyers and sellers, advertisers, software developers, social media users, etc. Offline platforms have existed for millennia, for instance as village markets. May, 2016.
  9. European Commission - Fact Sheet the European Commission has informed Google of its preliminary view that the company has, in breach of EU antitrust rules, abused its dominant position by imposing restrictions on Android device manufacturers and mobile network operators. The Commission's preliminary view is outlined in a Statement of Objections addressed to Google. It is also addressed to Alphabet, as it is standard practice for objections to also be addressed to the relevant parent company. April 20th, 2016.
  10. European Commission - Press release The European Commission has informed Google of its preliminary view that the company has, in breach of EU antitrust rules, abused its dominant position by imposing restrictions on Android device manufacturers and mobile network operators. The Commission's preliminary view is that Google has implemented a strategy on mobile devices to preserve and strengthen its dominance in general internet search. First, the practices mean that Google Search is pre-installed and set as the default, or exclusive, search service on most Android devices sold in Europe. April 20th, 2016.
  11. The European Commission has published initial findings on the prevalence of geo-blocking which prevents consumers from purchasing consumer goods and accessing digital content online in the European Union. The information was gathered by the Commission as part of its ongoing antitrust sector inquiry into the e-commerce sector, launched in May 2015. March 18th, 2016.
  12. Online platforms (e.g. search engines, social media, e-commerce platforms, app stores, price comparison websites, ad networks) play an ever more central role in the online world and hence in social and economic life. They enable consumers to find online information and they allow businesses to exploit the advantages offered bye-commerce. By 2015, the largest listed "online platform" companies worldwide had a market capitalization of USD 3.9trillion.1Onlineplatforms lead the list of the most accessed websites in the world2, with search engines, social media and e-commerce as the most visited types of platforms. 2016
  13. European Commission - Fact Sheet the European Commission has sent a Statement of Objections to Google outlining the Commission's preliminary view that the company is abusing a dominant position, in breach of EU antitrust rules, by systematically favoring its own comparison shopping product in its general search results pages in the European Economic Area (EEA). T. April 15th,
  14. European Commission - Fact Sheet the European Commission has opened formal proceedings against Google to investigate in-depth if the company’s conduct in relation to its Android mobile operating system as well as applications and services for smartphones and tablets has breached EU antitrust rules. The Commission will assess if, by entering into anticompetitive agreements and/or by abusing a possible dominant position, Google has illegally hindered the development and market access of rival mobile operating systems, mobile communication applications and services in the European Economic Area (EEA).. April 15th, 2015.
  15. EU approaches to data protection, competition and consumer protection share common goals, including the promotion of growth, innovation and the welfare of individual consumers. In practice, however, collaboration between policy-makers in these respective fields is limited. Online services are driving the huge growth in the digital economy. March, 2014.
  16. GEO-BLOCKING, EUCOMPETITION LAW AND THE SINGLE MARKET - commerce has grown steadily over the past years in the EU. The estimated average annual growth rate in the online sales of goods was approximately 22 per cent between 2000 and 2014.
  17. European Commission's antitrust infringement decisions under Article 7 of Regulation no. 1/2003,2as distinct from commitments under Article 9 of the same regulation, and remedies under the Merger Regulation.3This paper tries to answer four questions: What are remedies for? When can the Commission impose them? What kind of remedies? And what is the framework for enforcing remedies?

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